Current Page: ImVajraSupportGlossary
General introduction of all information security glossary:
Glossary 1 Adware, Back door, Browser Hijacker, Dialer, Identity, Key Logger, Malware, etc.
Glossary 2 Password generator, Password manager, PUP, PIN, Spyware, Thiefware, Trackware, etc.

A string of characters to verify the identity of a user that logs on to a network or to a local computer.

Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)
A simple, weak authentication mechanism where a user enters his or her password and it is then sent across the network, usually in the clear.

Password Cracking
A process of attempting to guess passwords, given the password file information.

Password generator
see random password generator. Can be part of a password manager.

Password manager
Software that helps a user organize passwords and PIN codes. The software typically has a local database or files that holds the encrypted password data.

Password propagation
A process that coordinates each user's password changes across multiple computers, devices, folders, or networks in synchronizing password.

Password Sniffing
Passive wiretapping, usually on a local area network, to gain knowledge of passwords.

Password synchronization
A service that replicates users' passwords between multiple computers, devices, folders, or networks, which results in users owning the same password in each environment.

Personal identification number (PIN)
A confidential identification code that is assigned to an authorized user, used in combination with an ATM card or smart card, for example, to unlock an authorized functionality such as access to a bank account.

Personally identifiable information (PII)
Any information related to an identified or identifiable individual, which may contain name, country, street address, e-mail address, credit card number, Social Security number, government ID number, IP address, or any unique identifier associated with PII in another system. Also known as personal information or personal data.

A scam that steals valuable information such as credit card and social security numbers, user IDs and passwords, attackers often use fraudulent e-mails and phony websites to perform swindling activities.

Physical vulnerability
Failure to offer physical security for a computer, e.g. leaving an unlocked workstation running in a workspace that is accessible to unauthorized users.

The control users have on the collection, use, and distribution of their personal information.

PUP(Potentially Unwanted Program)
An application that is installed along with the application the user actually asked for. In most cases, the PUP is spyware, adware or some other unwanted software. However, what makes spyware or adware a PUP is the fact that it does inform the user in the license agreement before installation. Considering hardly anyone ever reads the license agreement, the distinction is a subtle one.

A network worm.

Random password generator
Software program or hardware device that takes input from a random or pseudo-random number generator and automatically generates a password. Random passwords can be generated manually, using simple sources of randomness such as dice or coins, or they can be generated using a computer.

Remote Administration Trojan (RAT)
A Trojan in a user's machine that is interactively controlled by the attacker. The attacker remotely configures and controls the Trojan in the infected machine just like a user with a Web browser requests data from a server.

The probability that a hazard will turn into a disaster, which establishes the likelihood of a successful attack.

Risk Assessment
The process by which risks are identified and the impact of those risks determined.

A collection of tools (programs) for hacking root, which enables administrator-level access to a computer or computer network.

A technology, policy, or procedure that counters a threat or protects assets.

A security mechanism used to restrict the actions a program can take. A sandbox limits a program to a defined set of privileges and actions that reduce the possibility that the program may damage the system hosting the program.

Search Engine Hijacker
Software that automatically modifies the third-party search engine result without user's consent or authorization, and often adds its own advertisement or website link in the third-party search engine result to get high flow rate.

Security vulnerability
A vulnerability in application that is addressed by a Microsoft security update and security bulletin or a service pack.

Smart card
A electronic badge with an embedded microprocessor and a small amount of storage that is used, with an access code, to enable certificate-based authentication. Smart cards securely store certificates, public and private keys, passwords, and other types of personal information.

Electronic junk mail or junk newsgroup postings.

Attempt by an unauthorized entity to obtain access to a system by posing as an authorized user.

Any malicious software that is designed to take partial or full control of a computer's operation without the knowledge of its user and secretly gathers personal information about users without their informed consent.

Strong password
A password that is hard to detect both by humans and by the computer, and provides an effective defense against unauthorized access to a resource. A strong password is at least six characters long, does not contain all or part of the user's account name, and contains at least three of the four following categories of characters: uppercase letters, lowercase letters, base 10 digits, and symbols found on the keyboard, such as !, @, and #.

To maliciously modify data.

Software that steals and analyzes user's private data, record user's computer operation habit and web surfing habit etc. private activities without user's consent.

Refers to software that clandestinely copies information from your computer to a Web server on the Internet.

A way to prevent a denial of service attack by limiting the number of requests that can be made to a system. Also called pooling.

Trojan horse
A program that installs malicious software while under the guise of doing something else. Trojan horse programs are most commonly delivered to users through e-mail messages that misrepresent the program's purpose and function. Also called Trojan code.

Unauthorized use
Use of a Credit Card by someone other than the authorized cardholder, for example, after a bank credit card has been lost or stolen and purchases not approved by the cardholder are charged to the account.

Software used to infect a computer. After the virus code is written, it is buried within an existing program. Once that program is executed, the virus code is activated and attaches copies of itself to other programs in the system. Infected programs copy the virus to other programs. The effect of the virus may be a simple prank that pops up a message on screen out of the blue, or it may destroy programs and data right away or on a certain date. It can lay dormant and do its damage once a year.

A Sanskrit word meaning both thunderbolt and diamond and a ritual tool or spiritual implement which is symbolically important to both Buddism and Hinduism. Vajra destroys all kinds of ignorance, and itself is indestructible. In Hindu mythology Vajra is a powerful weapon having the combined features of sword, mace, and spear. In Buddism, Vajra is the symbol of indestructibility as a firm, incisive and all-conquering weapon.

A security exposure in an operating system or other system software or application software component.

Weak password
A password that is easy to detect both by humans and by computer, and does not provide an effective defense against unauthorized access to a resource. A weak password might be less than six characters long, contain all or part of a user's account name, or contain less than three of the four following categories of characters: uppercase letters, lowercase letters, base 10 digits, and symbols found on the keyboard, such as !, @, and #.

A destructive program that replicates itself throughout a single computer or across a network, both wired and wireless. A worm can take harmful action, such as consuming network or local system resources, possibly causing a denial of service attack.

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